Majalah Kedokteran http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk <p><img src="http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/public/journals/4/cover_issue_88.jpg" alt=""></p> <p>FK UKI merupakan FK swasta pertama di Indonesia yang didirikan pada tahun 1962. Sehubungan dengan itu FK UKI menerbitkan majalah pada tahun 1974.</p> en-US majalahfk@uki.ac.id (Prof. Dr. dr. Retno Wahyuningsih, MS, Sp. ParK (K)) majalahfk@uki.ac.id (Tarmini) Wed, 22 Jul 2020 07:35:17 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pneumotoraks pada Bayi yang Terinfeksi HIV http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1914 <p>Abstrak</p> <p>Departemen Kesehatan memperkirakan bahwa setiap hari sepuluh bayi terlahir dengan HIV. Kesehatan bayi tersebut paling rentan pada tahun pertama kehidupannya, dan kemungkinan sepertiganya meninggal dunia sebelum berusia satu tahun, umumnya tanpa didiagnosis HIV.</p> <p>Seorang bayi berusia dua bulan dirujuk ke RSU FK UKI dengan diagnosis dugaan infeksi HIV disertai pneumotoraks dan pneumonia. Pasien tampak sakit berat, sesak, pemafasan cepat dan dalam dan terdapat nafas cuping hidung. Pemasangan water shield drainage (WSD) dilakukan untuk mengatasi pneumotoraks dan didapatkan perbaikan keadaan umum yang ditandai dengan sesak yang berkurang, frekuensi nafas yang reguler dan adekuat, nafas cuping hidung tidak ada. Dari hasil laboratorium didapatkan HIV- IRNA positif, virus terdeteksi 1.15 <em>×</em>10<sup>6 </sup>kopi/ml, CD4 36 cell/µL (0%) dengan kesan limfosit T helper tidak terdeteksi. Dari anamnesis yaitu riwayat kelahiran bayi dan ibu merupakan penderita HIV, manifetasi klinis, hasil foto toraks dan hasil laboratorium, pasien didiagnosis menderita HIV-AIDS dengan infeksi oportunistik pneumonia dan pneumotoraks. Untuk mengatasi infeksi oportunistik, diberikan terapi kotrimoksazol 2 <em>×</em>½ cth, metronidazol 185 mg dan meropenem 2<em>×</em> 40 mg. Setelah perawatan selama 20 hari didapatkan perbaikan pasien secara klinis dan pasien diperbolehkan pulang. Namun pasien tidak mendapat terapi antiretroviral (ARV) karena kondisi keluarga yang tidak mendukung. Diagnosis dini, pencegahan infeksi oportunistik dengan kotrimoksazol, dan terapi ARV bila dibutuhkan, memberi harapan anak yang terinfeksi HIV dapat bertahan hidup sampai tua seperti dengan orang dewasa.</p> <p>Kata kunci : HIV pada anak, diagnosis, terapi</p> <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p><em>The Department of Health made estimation that ten Indonesian babies are born with HIV every day. In the first year ; they are very fragile and it is possible that one third of them will die before they reachthe age of one, usually without HIV diagnosis. A two-year-old baby was pointed to FK UKI 's hospital with diagnosis of suspect HIV, pneumothorax and pneumonia. He suffered from dyspnoe, extended breathing and suprasternal, intercostals and epigastrium retraction. A water shield drainage (WSD) was applied. His general condition improved which could be seen in the reducing of dyspnoe. Furthermore, his respiratory rate tends to be normal. The laboratory result was HJV-1 RNA positive1. 15 x I 06 kopi/ml, CD4 36 cells/µ/ (0%) and it seemed that </em><em>lymphocyte</em><em>T helper could not be detected. The anamnesis suggested that the baby and the mother was HIV positive. These patients then werediagnosed as HIV-AIDS with opportunistic pneumothorax and pneumonia infection due to the clinical manifestation, the thorax image as well as the laboratory result finding. To overcome the opportunistic infection Cotrimoxazole 2 × ½ cth, metronidazole 185 mg, meropenem 2 × 40 mg and paracetamol 4× 40 mg was given. After twenty days treatment, there was clinically improvement and the patients were allowed to go home. However; the patient did not get antiretroviral (ARV) therapy due to their family condition which could not support it. Finally, the children with HJ V could survive till theirmature age as far as early diagnosis, prevention of opportunistic infection with cotrimoxazole and ARV therapy is applied. </em></p> <p>Key words : <em>Children with HIV, diagnostic, therapy</em></p> Abraham Simatupang, Grace Simatupang, Leopold Simanjuntak, Ida Bagus Eka Copyright (c) 2007 Abraham Simatupang, Grace Simatupang, Leopold Simanjuntak, Ida Bagus Eka http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1914 Sat, 07 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Apoptosis Neuronal pada Penyakit Neurodegeneratif http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1915 <p>Abstrak</p> <p>Selama dekade terakhir, penelitian mengenai mekanisme apoptosis yang kompleks pada kerusakan sel saraf akut maupun kronik telah mengalami banyak kemajuan. Mekanisme apoptosis yang terdiri atas berbagai jalur telah banyak dimengerti, hal itu membuka kemungkinan untuk menginhibisi jalur tersebut untuk membatasi kerusakan yang diakibatkan kematian sel. Selain trauma saraf akut dan iskemia, penyakit neurodegeneratif kronik seperti Alzheimer, Huntington, Parkinson, dan Lou-Gehrig (A<em>myotrophic lateral sclerosis; </em>ALS) juga menarik perhatian mengingat kesamaan proses yang terjadi yakni apoptosis neuronal.</p> <p>Kata kunci: kematian sel terprogram, neuronal, kaspase, proses neurodegenerasi.</p> <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p><em>Neuronal Apoptosis in Neurodegenerative</em> Disease d<em>uring the last decade, the investigation of complicated apoptotic mechanisms in the acute and chronic neuronal cells injury have been improved significantly. The understanding of apoptosis events and its regulation indicate a possible alternate pathway to inhibit the neuronal cells· death. Beside the acute neuronal trauma and ischemia, chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig s disease) are of particular interestdue to the same cause of neuronal apoptosis underlying the diseases. This article will deal with the basic mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis of the above-mentioned disorders. Furthermore, the potential </em><em>as well as the limitation in clinical applications will be discussed. Finally, this article will also discuss potential implications for the neuronal degenerative diseases future studies. </em></p> <p>Keywords : <em>programmed cell death, neuronal, caspases, neurodegeneration.</em></p> Sigit Sutanto Copyright (c) 2007 Sigit Sutanto http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1915 Sat, 07 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Etiologi dan Patogenesis Limfangioleiomiomatosis http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1918 <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p><em>LAM stands for lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a progressive lung disease which affects women of all races. Usually the disease manifested during their reproductive age. Pathologically, it is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of immature smooth muscle-like cells that grow aberrantly in the lung pulmonary airway, parenchyma, lymphatics, and blood vessels. The relentless growth of LAM cells leads to respiratory failure and death. lymphangioleiomyomatosis lesions are generated by the proliferation of LAM cells with mutations of one of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes. LAM is a rare disease and often goes misdiagnosed as asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary bronchitis. Recent studies indicate that LAM cells can migrate or metastasize to form new lesions in multiple organs. Although they show amorphologically benign appearance. Scientists estimate that there could be 300000 LAM patients worldwide. Recent progress has been made in understanding more about pathogenesis of LAM and facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, aimed at abrogating the aberrant cellular proliferation characteristic of LAM. </em></p> <p>Keywords: <em>lymphuugloleiomyomatosis; progressive lung disease; abnormal proliferation; immature smooth muscle-like cells</em></p> Yovita Harmiatun Copyright (c) 2007 Yovita Harmiatun http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1918 Sat, 07 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Obat Keras Tanpa Resep Dokter yang Termasuk Obat Wajib Apotik http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1919 <p>Abstrak</p> <p>Hasil penelitian Departemen Kesehatan RI tentang perilaku masyarakat terbadap timbulnya gejala penyakit dan pengobatan, menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat mengobati dirinya denganmemakai obat bebas. Hal itu menjadi dasar kebijakan pemerintah (Departernen Kesehatan) dalam membina kesehatan masyarakat pada umumnya. Dalam rangka meningkatkan kemampuan masyarakatmelakukan pengobatan sendiri, Menteri Kesehatan pada tanggal 16 Juli 1990 menetetapkan beberapa obat golongan obat keras yang dapat diserahkan langsung oleb apoteker di apotik tanpa resep dokter(Obat Wajib Apotik). Kebijakan itu tertuang dalarn surat Keputusan Mentcri Kesehatan Nomor 347/MenKes/S.K./VII/1990. Obat yang terdapat dalam Daftar Obat Wajib Apotik (DOWA) padaumurnnya digunakan untuk penyakit yang tidak berbahaya. Apoteker sebagai tenaga inti dan sebagai pengelola apotik harus memahami masalab obat yang terdapat dalam DOWA sehingga dapat membensaran bagi masyarakat yang ingin melakukan pengobatan diri sendiri. Tujuan membuat tulisan ini untuk menjelaskan tentang obat wajib apotik dilihat dari penggolongan obat, mekanisme kerja, indikasi, danefek samping obat.</p> <p>Kata kunci: Pengobatan sendiri, obat keras, obat wajib apotik Pharmaceutically Obligatory Drug List</p> <p><em>Abstract</em></p> <p>Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia regarding behaviorof community on the incidence of diseases by consuming free drugs. This fact has become the basisof governmental policy (Ministry of Health) in improving community's health in general. In order todevelop community's capability in performing self-treatment, Minister of Health of Republic ofIndonesia, on July 16<sup>th</sup>, 1990, specified some types of high-dosage drugs which may directly beadministered by pharmacist in the pharmacy without prescription by physician (Pharmaceutically Obligatory Drugs). This policy is specified in the Decree of Minister of Health Number347/MenKes/S.K.Vll/1990. Some drugs registered in the Pharmaceutically Obligatory Drug List(DOWA) are generally used for not serious diseases. Pharmacists, as the main personnel and managerof pharmacy should understand the drugs registered in the DOWA so that they may provide suggestions to the people who wish to perform self-treatment. The purpose of this paper is to provide explanationregarding the pharmaceutically obligatory drugs, viewed from the classification of drugs, work mechanism,indication and side effects of the drugs.</p> <p>Keywords: Self-treatment, high-dosage drugs, pharmaceutically obligatory drugs.</p> Siti Alimah Ngasarati Copyright (c) 2007 Siti Alimah Ngasarati http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1919 Sat, 07 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Terapi Farmakologis Pada Alopesia Androgenetika http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1920 <p>Abstrak</p> <p>Alopesia androgenetika (AA) atau <em>male pattern-hair loss </em>merupakan kelainan yang tidak berbahaya namun dapat mempengaruhi penderitanya secara psikologis. Kelainan itu juga dapat mempengaruhiintegritas kulit kepala karena rambut melindungi kulit kepala dari sengatan panas matahari, suhu dingin,cedera mekanis, dan sinar ultraviolet. Alopesia androgenetika merupakan kelainan progresif yang bergantung pada honnondihidrotestosteron dan adanya predisposisi genetik. Hingga saat ini patofisiologi AA belum sepenuhnya dimengerti. Pilihan terapi AA yang tersedia saat ini meliputi farmakoterapi, transplantasi rambut, danalat bantu kosmetik. Minoksidil dan finasteride merupakan dua obat yang diakui FDA untuk terapi AA, keduanya terbukti efektif dan aman digunakan dalamjangka panjang. Pemahaman proses penyakitdan kemampuan serta keterbatasan masing-masing pilihan terapi penting dalam membantu penderira mencapai hasil yang realistis. Makalah ini akan membabas patofisiologi, epidemiologi, manifestasiklinis, diagnosis dan farmakoterapi AA. Hal-ha! tersebut penting untuk diketabui karena kelainan ini sering dijumpai dan mudah didiagnosis serta dapat diterapi secara efektif.</p> <p>Kata kunci: alopesia androgenetika, kebotakan, farmakoterapi, finasteride, minoksidil.</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p>Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) known as common male baldness or male pattern-hair loss is recognizedas harmless medical condition, it could affect individual psychologically. It also harm the scalp becausehair protects the scalp against sunburn, cold, mechanical injury, and ultraviolet light. As a progressive condition, AGA depended on the presence of the dihydrotestosterone and genetic predisposition, butits pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. At present, pharmacotherapy, hair transplantation,and cosmetic aids have been used to manage male pattern baldness. US Food and Drug Administrationapproved two hair loss pharmacotherapies, the potassium channel opener, minoxidil and the dihydrotestosterone synthesis inhibitor, finasteride. They proved to be safe and effective in long-termdaily use against AGA. Regardless of which treatment; modality is chosen, defining and addressingthe patient's expectations regarding therapy are paramount in determining the outcome. This article discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and pharmacotherapyfor androgenetic alopecia, since this medical condition can be easily recognized and managed effectivelyby general physicians.</p> <p>Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, male pattern-hairless, pharmacotherapy, finasteride, minoxidil.</p> Sigit Sutanto Copyright (c) 2007 Sigit Sutanto http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1920 Sat, 07 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0000 Oogenesis dan Spermatogenesis Pada Mamalia http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1921 <p>Abstrak</p> <p>Oogenesis adalah proses pembentukan ovum dari sel benih dalam ovariurn sedangkan spermatogenesis adalah proses pembentukan spermatozoon dalam testis. Pada mamalia terdapat perbedaan utama dalamcara menghasilkan ovum dan spermatozoon melalui proses oogenesis dan spermatogenesis. Pada perempuan, oogonia hanya berproliferasi pada fetus, kernudian rncmasuki meiosis sebelum lahir, danmeiosis tersebut berhenti pada profase meiotic pertama sebagai oosit, dan dapat tetap dalam kondisi seperti itu sampai usia 50 tahun. Oosit individual matang dari stok tersebut diovulasikan dalam selangwaktu tertentu, umumnya satu ovum setiap satu siklus, dimulai pada saat pubertas. Pada laki-Iaki, sangat berbeda, meiosis dan spermatogenesis dimulai pada saat pubertas dan kemudian berlanjut secarakontinu di dalam lapisan epitelial tubulus seminiferus testis. Sel benih yang belum matang atauspermatogonia, yang terletak di sebelah luar dan berdekatan dengan lamina basalis tubulus seminiferus,berproliferasi kontinu melalui mitosis. Beberapa sel tcrsebut berhenti berproliferasi, dan kemudianberdiferensiasi menjadi spermatosit primer. Sel tersebut berada pada stadium profase meiotik pertama,kemudian melanjutkan pembelahan pertama meiosis, dan menghasilkan dua spermatosit sekunder. Duaspermatosit sekunder kemudian memasuki pembelahan meiotik II, dan menghasilkan empat spermatid.Keempat spermatid ini kemudian mengalami diferensiasi morfologis menjadi sperma yang kemudianmasuk ke lumen tubulus seminiferus. Persamaan di antara oogenesis dan spermatogenesis adalah keduanya melibatkan mitosis dan meiosis.</p> <p>Kata kunci: gamet; pembelahan sel: mitosis; meiosis.</p> <p>Abstract</p> <p>Oogenesis is a formation process of female garnets from the female's germ cell in the ovary, whereas spermatogenesis is a formation process of male garnets from the male's germ cell in the testis.Thereis a major difference in the way of mammal producing ovum and spermatozoon. In the human females,the immature germ cells, oogonia proliferate only in the fetus, beginning meiosis before birth. In thefirst meitotic prophase they become oocytes, which they may remain for up to 50 years. Individualoocytes mature from this strictly limited stock and are ovulated at intervals, generally one at a time ora cycle, beginning at puberty. In the contrary, the human male’s meiosis and spermatogenesis do notbegin in the testes until puberty and then go on continuously in the epithelial lining of seminiferoustubules. The immature germ cells, spermatogonia, are located around the outer edge of these tubes next to the basal lamina, where they continuously proliferate by mitosis. Some of these cells stopproliferating and begin to differentiate into primary spermatocytes. These cells begin the first meitoticprophase, and then proceed with the first division of meiosis to produce two secondary spermatocytes. Then the two secondary spermatocytes proceed through the second meiotic division to produce fourspermatids. Finally, the spermatids undergo the morphological differentiation into sperm</p> <p>which escape into the lumen of seminiferous tubule. The similarities between oogenesis and spermatogenesis arethat both have mitosis and meiosis.</p> <p>Key words: gametes; cell division; mitosis; meiosis</p> Yovita Harmiatun Copyright (c) 2007 Yovita Harmiatun http://ejournal.uki.ac.id/index.php/mk/article/view/1921 Sat, 07 Jul 2007 00:00:00 +0000