Terapi Farmakologis Pada Alopesia Androgenetika

  • Sigit Sutanto Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Kristen Indonesia (Mahasiswa)

Abstract

Abstrak

Alopesia androgenetika (AA) atau male pattern-hair loss merupakan kelainan yang tidak berbahaya namun dapat mempengaruhi penderitanya secara psikologis. Kelainan itu juga dapat mempengaruhiintegritas kulit kepala karena rambut melindungi kulit kepala dari sengatan panas matahari, suhu dingin,cedera mekanis, dan sinar ultraviolet. Alopesia androgenetika merupakan kelainan progresif yang bergantung pada honnondihidrotestosteron dan adanya predisposisi genetik. Hingga saat ini patofisiologi AA belum sepenuhnya dimengerti. Pilihan terapi AA yang tersedia saat ini meliputi farmakoterapi, transplantasi rambut, danalat bantu kosmetik. Minoksidil dan finasteride merupakan dua obat yang diakui FDA untuk terapi AA, keduanya terbukti efektif dan aman digunakan dalamjangka panjang. Pemahaman proses penyakitdan kemampuan serta keterbatasan masing-masing pilihan terapi penting dalam membantu penderira mencapai hasil yang realistis. Makalah ini akan membabas patofisiologi, epidemiologi, manifestasiklinis, diagnosis dan farmakoterapi AA. Hal-ha! tersebut penting untuk diketabui karena kelainan ini sering dijumpai dan mudah didiagnosis serta dapat diterapi secara efektif.

Kata kunci: alopesia androgenetika, kebotakan, farmakoterapi, finasteride, minoksidil.

Abstract

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) known as common male baldness or male pattern-hair loss is recognizedas harmless medical condition, it could affect individual psychologically. It also harm the scalp becausehair protects the scalp against sunburn, cold, mechanical injury, and ultraviolet light. As a progressive condition, AGA depended on the presence of the dihydrotestosterone and genetic predisposition, butits pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. At present, pharmacotherapy, hair transplantation,and cosmetic aids have been used to manage male pattern baldness. US Food and Drug Administrationapproved two hair loss pharmacotherapies, the potassium channel opener, minoxidil and the dihydrotestosterone synthesis inhibitor, finasteride. They proved to be safe and effective in long-termdaily use against AGA. Regardless of which treatment; modality is chosen, defining and addressingthe patient's expectations regarding therapy are paramount in determining the outcome. This article discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and pharmacotherapyfor androgenetic alopecia, since this medical condition can be easily recognized and managed effectivelyby general physicians.

Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, male pattern-hairless, pharmacotherapy, finasteride, minoxidil.

Published
2007-07-07