Indonesian Defense and The Views on Threats and Ambitions in Every Era of Indonesian Regime
In looking at the main national strategies that have been implemented by the nation's leaders and their consequences for the defense viewpoint, a historical review is needed to look at the experiences that may be useful in the future. The purpose of this paper is to see the difference of perspective in the implementation of state defense in every era or era of government regime. This study is a preliminary study to look at the economy and defense management. The research method used is literature review. Indonesia has experienced three eras of leadership, namely the old order (orde lama), the new order (orde baru), and the reform order (orde reformasi). Each order has its own view of threats and ambitions, especially in the international world. When Indonesia was newly independent, the old order government emphasized the strength of military defense in the face of ongoing aggressions and insurgencies. This hard power politics turned into soft power politics in the new order era and reform. The consequence is that the ability of defense forces is not the main thing but economic development is a priority. In the reform era, the Indonesian National Army was again mandated to keep Indonesia's defense and sovereignty from external threats. With the ability of resources owned by Indonesia, especially natural resources, population, and geographical location is very strategic, making Indonesia ambitious to become one of the economic strengths in the region. With the basic capital owned by Indonesia, the ambition is actually fair and capable to achieve.
Keywords: Defense, Threat, Ambitions, Regime