Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of Online Instructional Tools

  • İlknur Bayram TED University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Meltem Huri Baturay Atılım University, Ankara, Turkey
Keywords: pre-service EFL teachers (PETs),, teacher educators (TEs),, online instructional tools (OITs),, perceptions


This study carried out with the participation of 68 pre-service EFL teachers (PET) attending Turkish universities aims to investigate PETs’ perceptions as to the use of online instructional tools (OIT). This is a mixed-methods study; both quantitative and qualitative data have been collected. Data was gathered in the academic year of 2018-2019 through an online questionnaire developed by the researchers. The survey was comprised of three sections; (1) demographics, (2) the frequency of teacher educators’(TE) and PETs use of OITs in an English language teacher education program, (3) PETs’ intention of using OITs upon graduation. Two open-ended questions were also asked to find out what might motivate or discourage PETs from using OITs when they become teachers. Results indicate that TEs always use and PETs mostly plan to use videos and presentation tools when they start serving as teachers. However, TEs do not make use of MOOCs, online ELT courses, and blogs as much as expected. Similarly, PETs do not plan to integrate them into their teaching. The reasons underlying their choices are presented in the study.


Abdallah, M. M. S. (2011). The Internet in EFL teacher education: Investigating the possibilities and challenges in a pre-service education programme. Sino- US English Teaching, 8(1), 15-23.

Albirini, A. (2006). Teachers’ attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers. Computers & Education, 47(4), 373–398.

An, Y. J., & Reigeluth, C. (2011). Creating technology-enhanced, learner-centered classrooms: K–12 teachers’ beliefs, perceptions, barriers, and support needs. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 28(2), 54–62.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

Bax, S. (2018). ‘MOOCs as a new technology: approaches to normalising the MOOC experience for our learners’ in Orsini-Jones, M and Smith, S (eds) Flipping the blend through MOOCs, MALL and OIL – new directions in CALL. Dublin:, 9–16.

Brown, M. R., Higgins, K., & Hartley, K. (2001). Teachers and technology equity. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 32–39.

Cavanaugh, T. (2005). Integrating literacy and technology literacy instruction in preservice education. In: G. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of world conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education (pp. 2552-2556). Chesapeake, VA: AACE

Chaaban, Y., & Ellili-Cherif, M. (2017). Technology integration in EFL classrooms: A study of Qatari independent schools. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2433-2454.

Creswell, J. W. (2015). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). Teacher technology change: how knowledge, confidence, beliefs, and culture intersect. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255–284.

Gieve, S., & Clark, R., (2005). The Chinese approach to learning: cultural trait or situated response? The case of a self-directed learning programme. System, 33(2), 261-276.

Gilakjani, A. P., & Leong, L. M. (2012). EFL Teachers" Attitudes toward Using Computer Technology in English Language Teaching. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 2(3), 630-636.

Hew, K. F., & Brush, T. (2007). Integrating technology into K-12 teaching and learning: current knowledge gaps and recommendations for futureresearch. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(3), 223–252.

Hutchinson, A., & Reinking, D. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of integrating information and communication technologies into literacy instruction: a national survey in the United States. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 312– 333.

Ivanova, A., & Smrikarov, A. (2009). The new generations of students and the future of e-learning in higher education. Proceedings of e-Learning, 9, 17-25.

Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2000). Educational research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. 2nd edition. USA: Pearson Education.

Kan, Q., & Bax, S. (2017). Introduction to Beyond the language classroom: researching MOOCs and other innovations. In Q. Kan & S. Bax (Eds), Beyond the language classroom: researching MOOCs and other innovations (pp. 1-4).

Klapper, J. (2006). Understanding and developing good practice: Language teaching in higher education. London: CILT.

Manning, C., Morrison, B. R., & McIlroy, T. (2014). MOOCs in language education and professional teacher development: Possibilities and potential. Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 5(3), 294-308.

Marshall, C., & Rossmann, G. B. (2011). Designing qualitative research. 5th edition. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Noori, A. (2019). Attitudes of Afghan EFL Lecturers Toward Instructional Technology. TechTrends, 63(2), 170-178.

Pardede, P. (2020). Secondary school EFL teachers’ perception of ICT use in learning and teaching: A case study in Greater Jakarta. Journal of English Teaching, 6(2), 144-157.

Russell, M., O'Dwyer, L. M., Bebell, D., & Tao, W. (2007). How teachers' uses of technology vary by tenure and longevity. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37(4), 393–417.

The history of PowerPoint (2018). Retrieved September 12, 2019 from

Williams, D., Parsons, L., McQuiston, M., Ellis, I., Penner, A. , Crusoe, D., Walch, T., Collins, K., and Madriga, K. (2017). Voice, Choice, Access, & Passion: Preparing the Centennial Generation for Leadership. Retrieved on September 23, 2019 from

Yıldırım, S. (2000). Effects of an educational computing course on preservice and inservice teachers: A discussion and analysis of attitudes and use. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(4), 479–495.

Yüksel, G., & Kavanoz, S. (2011). In search of pre-service EFL certificate teachers’ attitudes towards technology. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 666-671.