EduMatSains : Jurnal Pendidikan, Matematika dan Sains 2024-02-03T16:53:56+00:00 Stevi Natalia Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Edumatsains : Jurnal Pendidikan, Matematika dan Sains (2527-7235)</strong> is an open-access peer-reviewed research journal that is published by the Faculty of Teaching and Education of Universitas Kristen Indonesia (FKIP-UKI). <strong>Edumatsains : Jurnal Pendidikan, Matematika dan Sains</strong> is providing a platform that welcomes and acknowledges empirical original research papers about mathematics education, physics education, chemical education, biological education and also includes research in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology. written by researchers, academicians, professionals, and practitioners.</p> <p><strong>Edumatsains : Jurnal Pendidikan, Matematika dan Sains (2527-7235)</strong> is a scientific journal published online by twice a year (in July and January). <strong>Edumatsains : Jurnal Pendidikan, Matematika dan Sains</strong> have been indexed by Copernicus, Google Scholar, Garuda Portal, Base, Dimension and Sinta-4.</p> <div style="float: left; margin-right: 1em;">&nbsp;</div> PROJECTION GROWTH TWO-WHEELED VEHICLES AT PT. ETERNAL DESIRE OF REPRESENTATIVES YOUR FAME WITH USE EQUALITY DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH MODEL POPULATION CONTINUOUS (EXPONENTIAL MODEL AND LOGISTIC MODEL) 2024-02-03T09:00:03+00:00 Faustianus Luan Oktovianus R. Sikas Leonardus Frengky Obe Natalius Nahak <p>This research explains how to determine the growth model for two-wheeled vehicles entered and sold at PT. Hasjrat Abadi, representative of Kefamenanu. The author uses data obtained from PT. Hasjrat Abadi representing Kefamenanu from 2019 – 2022. This research aims to apply the Differential Equation model Continuous Exponential Model and Logistic Model which are used to predict the growth rate of two-wheelers entered and sold at PT. Eternal Passion of the Ministry of Famennanu Representative . The results of this research show that the exponential III model is the most accurate for predicting the number of vehicles in 2025 in the form of a vehicle equation with a relative growth rate of 21% for incoming vehicles while vehicles with a relative growth rate of 21% per year. In the logistic model, the logistic model I is the most accurate for predicting the number of vehicles coming in and sold in 2025 which will be as many vehicles coming in as the number of vehicles being sold while the number of vehicles being sold . Based on the calculation results of the two models, which has the smallest <em>error </em>(the best model) in predicting the number of two-wheeled vehicles entered and sold at PT. The Kefamenanu Representative's eternal desire in 2025 is a logistics model.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Faustianus Luan SCREENING FOR ELDERLY PEOPLE EXPERIENCING MALNUTRITION BASED ON THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT (MNA) AT BATAM CITY NURSING HOMES IN DECEMBER 2022 2024-02-03T09:00:03+00:00 Rahayu Yekti Arvin Hardian Tambunan Pratiwi Dyah Kusumo <p>Malnutrition refers to a condition when the body does not get enough of the necessary nutritional intake. Malnutrition in the elderly is a serious global health problem due to changes in the age pyramid throughout the world, especially the proportion of the number of elderly. The elderly are vulnerable to functional disorders, nutritional intake and economic problems. psychological and motoric As a result, it is very easy for elderly people to experience a decrease in nutritional intake which triggers nutritional problems and other disorders in the elderly. This research uses the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire to identify the nutritional status of the elderly and its relationship with elderly screening including food intake, as well as several disorders (mobility, psychological, neurological) in the elderly at Batam City Nursing Homes in December 2022. The research method used is descriptive analytic with a cross-sectional approach, the research sample consists of 65 respondents selected using total sampling techniques. The research results showed that based on the Mini Nutritional Assessment, 10 respondents (15.4%) had normal nutritional status, 30 people (46.2%) were at risk of experiencing malnutrition, and 25 people (38.5%) experienced malnutrition. The majority of elderly people experience a decrease in food intake, are still able to move (mobility), do not experience psychological disorders, but the majority have experienced neurological disorders (dementia).</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rahayu Yekti NPWP ENCRYPTION USES A COMBINATION OF ONE TIME PAD ALGORITHM AND EXCLUSIVE-OR OPERATION 2024-02-03T09:00:04+00:00 Margaretha Pasaribu Sherli Yurinanda Niken Rarasati <p>Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak (NPWP) is the 20 distinct code characteristics that are confidential only to the taxpayer when it comes <br>to making tax transactions. The many tax payers who use NPWP others in their business activities make NPWP a very important <br>aspect of maintaining confidentiality and the authenticity of their data. Therefore, solutions are needed that can be used to make <br>the necessary information secure. Cryptography involves the secret science of code writing using certain mathematical models.<br>The study discusses NPWP encryption using a combination algorithm One Time Pad (OTP) and an operation Exclusive-OR <br>(XOR). The encryption process involves generating random numbers for an OTP algorithm, after which it is followed by an XOR <br>operation. The key on XOR encryption is generated from an algorithm generating random numbers Blum Blum Shub. Encryption <br>keys generated as much as the number of plaquic characters. The encryption keys used by each character would vary and not <br>occur again. Therefore, ciphertext results from an encrypted process using an OTP algorithm and an XOR operation more <br>complicated and more difficult to decipher by crypts.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Margaretha Pasaribu, SHERLI YURINANDA, NIKEN RARASATI ANALYSIS OF THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP) METHOD IN DETERMINING PRIORITY DECISIONS FOR HANDLING STUNTING IN BENGKULU PROVINCE 2024-02-03T09:00:04+00:00 Rewan Jayadi Ramya Rachmawati Siska Yosmar <p>Statistical Processing Data 2021 shows that technical efficiency in stunting intervention costs in Bengkulu Province always achieves efficient results in the technical system, however, for that reason, it is technically inefficient in costs. This research aims to analyze the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in deciding to determine priorities for handling stunting in Bengkulu Province, which will then get results according to the level of needs of each district/city. This study used the AHP method to determine priorities for handling stunting by collecting primary data directly from respondents, namely the Bengkulu Province Health Service. Validity and reliability tests are used before researching to obtain good research results suitable for development. The results of the consistency test showed that the Consistency Ratio (CR) value for each criterion and the alternative was, which means that the filling and results of the questionnaire for respondents had obtained results that met the requirements. The results of the analysis of preferences for criteria/alternatives show that the main priority in making decisions for handling stunting in Bengkulu Province is North Bengkulu as the main priority, followed by South Bengkulu, Seluma, Rejang Lebong, Kepahiang, Central Bengkulu, Bengkulu, Mukomuko, Lebong, and finally Kaur.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Analytic Hierarchy Process, Consistency Ratio, stunting, Bengkulu Province.</p> 2024-02-01T13:38:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rewan Jayadi, Ramya Rachmawati, Siska Yosmar USE OF SENGGANI LEAVES AS AN ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL FOR PRINTER REFILL INK THAT IS LOW VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY 2024-02-03T09:00:04+00:00 Trilia Ananta Pramita Sari Rewan Jayadi Rika Agustin Putri Ramanda Nurhasana Eka Angasa <p><em>This study aims to determine the content of senggani leaves and utilize senggani leaves as a raw material for printer refill ink. This can increase the utilization of senggani leaves into products that are low in VOC levels. The method used in this study the first test is done, the ink absorption rate test on HVS paper is done by using a medium such as paper by comparing the length of the absorption path </em>∆x <em>with a time interval t during the absorption process. The next test is the ink performance test using the volume of aqueous solvent and</em> <em>comparing the quality of the ink obtained. The ink consists of 3 components, namely pigment, solvent, and thickening agent the pigment used in this study is carbon</em> <em>obtained from the carbonization of senggani leaves, 98% alcohol is used as a carbon solvent as a thickener and adhesive in the form of gum arabic. The variation of carbon used is 1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams, while the volume of aquadest, the volume of</em> <em>alcohol, and gum arabic mass is made fixed that is sequentially 15 mL, 3 mL, and 3.5 grams</em><em>. The test results of senggani leaf ink with the best composition resulted in solvent and mass variation values by the standard. Meanwhile, from the results of the print test, the resulting printer ink has provided good print and color results as well as commercial ink and does not easily fade if exposed to water.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: senggani leaf, ink, pigment.</em></strong></p> 2024-02-01T13:45:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Trilia Ananta Pramita Sari, Rewan Jayadi, Rika Agustin, Putri Ramanda, Nurhasana SMART BOOK MATHEMATIC FOR DIFABEL (SOMABEL): WEBSITE-BASED MATHEMATICS LEARNING MEDIA FOR MENTALLY DISABLED STUDENTS USING CARDBOARD WASTE 2024-02-03T09:00:05+00:00 Rewan Jayadi Siska Yosmar <p>Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK) memiliki keterbatasan secara fisik, mental, emosi, sosial, dan intelektual, dalam hal ini salah satu yang termasuk sebagai anak berkebutuhan khusus adalah tunagrahita, ini dikarenakan memiliki nilai intelengensia di bawah rata-rata dapat menjadi hambatan bagi mereka sehingga kesulitan untuk memahami materi pada proses pembelajaran terkhususnya matematika. Sehingga diperlukan suatu inovasi yang memiliki tujuan untuk menciptakan media pembelajaran matematika bagi anak tunagrahita dalam mendukung target SDGs 2030 (<em>Sustainable Development Goals</em>) yaitu <em>Smart Book Mathematic for </em>Difabel (SOMABEL<em>)</em> yang harapannya mampu mendukung mereka dalam menghadapi hambatan belajar matematika khususnya materi bangun datar. Metode penelitian yang dipilih adalah <em>Research and Development</em> (R&amp;D), pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan studi kasus, studi Pustaka, observasi dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media pembelajaran Somabel dapat meningkatkan semangat belajar siswa tunagrahita yang mana media ini secara langsung terintegrasi pada teknologi berbasis <em>website</em>, yang memiliki sekaligus melestarikan budaya Provinsi Bengkulu, serta desain buku dan media fisik yang menarik sehingga tidak membosankan dalam belajar materi matematika. Inovasi media pembelajaran ini juga membantu para guru dalam mengajar guru, karena selain bisa menjadi bahan referensi media ini juga tidak membosankan dan bisa menjadi pengetahuan tambahan untuk pengenalan budaya yang ada di Provinsi Bengkulu.</p> <p><strong>Kata kunci</strong>: Pembelajaran Matematika, <em>Research and Development, Website</em></p> 2024-02-01T13:59:41+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Rewan Jayadi ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS MATHEMATICAL COMMUNICATION ABILITY REVIEWED FROM ADVERSITY QUOTIENT DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC 2024-02-03T09:00:05+00:00 Subhan Ajiz Awalludin <p>Kemampuan komunikasi matematis menjadi kemampuan yang perlu dimiliki siswa pada abad 21. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kemampuan komunikasi matematis ditinjau dari <em>adversity quotient</em>. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kualitatif deskriptif dengan enam informan penelitian di kelas X IPA 2. Analisis data dilakukan dengan tahap reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penerikan kesimpulan. Keabsahan data menggunakan triangulasi teknik. Hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa: 1) Peserta didik dengan <em>adversity quotient</em> climber tidak selalu memiliki kemampuan komunikasi matematis yang tinggi, namun juga dapat terjadi pada peserta didik yang memiliki kemampuan komunikasi matematis sedang. Kemampuan komunikasi matematis peserta didik secara umum dengan <em>adversity quotient climber</em> dikategorikan tinggi; 2) Peserta didik dengan <em>adversity quotient camper</em> cenderung memiliki kemampuan komunikasi matematis sama, yaitu sedang. Kemampuan komunikasi matematis peserta didik dengan <em>adversity quotient camper</em> dikategorikan sedang; dan 3) Peserta didik dengan <em>adversity quotient quitter</em> tidak selalu memiki kemampuan komunikasi matematis rendah, namun juga terdapat peserta didik yang memiliki kemampuan komunikasi matematis sedang. Kemampuan komunikasi matematis peserta didik secara umum dengan <em>adversity quotient quitter</em> dikategorikan rendah-sedang.</p> 2024-02-01T14:15:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Subhan Ajiz Awalludin ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS' DIFFICULTIES IN SOLVING ALGEBRAIC OPERATION PROBLEMS BASED ON PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS IN GRADE VII AT SMP NEGERI 8 TAMBUN SELATAN 2024-02-03T09:00:05+00:00 Mayawi Farida Hotmaulina Sihotang Candra Ditasona <p>This study aims to analyze the difficulties faced by students when solving algebraic operation problems based on the criteria of problem solving ability. This study was conducted to understand the factors that master students' difficulties in solving algebraic problems. This research used descriptive method with qualitative approach. The research subjects consisted of 35 students of class VII-G at SMP N 8 Tambun Selatan. Data were collected through observation, tests, questionnaires, and documentation. Data analysis used the Miles and Huberman data analysis model. Data validity was checked through method tringulation. The results showed that of the 35 students studied: 1) 61% of students had difficulty in understanding the problem, 2) 57% of students had difficulty in planning the solution, 3) 73% of students had difficulty in carrying out the plan, and 4) 86% of students had difficulty in checking back. The main factors that influence these difficulties are students' understanding of basic algebraic concepts, difficulties in applying mathematical concepts to the algebraic context and underdeveloped problem solving skills. In understanding math problems and formulating the steps needed to solve them, students often face difficulties.</p> 2024-02-01T16:33:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mayawi Farida, Hotmaulina Sihotang, Candra Ditasona VALIDITY OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL) COMIC LEARNING MEDIA 2024-02-03T09:00:06+00:00 Teni Suriani Andi Kurnia Riski Sanneng <p>The lack of student interest in learning mathematics is caused by the teaching materials used not being able to make students active so that student scores have not reached the Minimum Completeness Criteria (KKM). School teaching materials contain many questions with almost the same level of difficulty and solution methods so that students get a little bored of doing them. This research aims to develop mathematics learning media in the form of comics with <em>Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) </em>nuances to improve the mathematics learning outcomes of class VII students at SMP N 20 Jambi City. In this development it is expected to obtain valid mathematics learning media results. This type of research is development research that produces a product in the form of learning comics. The development of this comic uses the ADDIE model which consists of 5 stages, namely the Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation stages. The research subjects were class VII students of SMP N 20 Jambi City. Learning device validation was carried out by mathematics education experts and Indonesian language education experts. The overall validation results for comic media are very valid with a success rate of 85.52%. With this it can be concluded that the development of comic media with <em>Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) </em>nuances can be used as teaching material.</p> 2024-02-01T17:17:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Teni Suriani, Andi Kurnia Riski Sanneng NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HOME OWNERSHIP LOANS BANK INTEREST RATES IN INDONESIA WITH NEWTON'S INTERPOLATION METHOD 2024-02-03T09:00:06+00:00 Bela Desy Natalia Candra Ditasona Ruth Ririn Vania Kornelius Anugrah Zebua <p>The demand of the Indonesian society to own homes and properties is increasing along with the growth of Indonesia's population. This has led to an increase in population density, causing property prices to rise. The way to own property or a house in accordance with monthly income is by using bank housing loans. Three Indonesian banks renowned for housing loan applications, namely BTN, Mandiri, and BSI, were selected as samples in this study. These three banks have their own advantages and different bank interest rates. Therefore, this research was created as a tool for consumers to make decisions by considering the advantages obtained when applying for a loan at one of the three banks. This study employs the Newton's interpolation method to generate formulas that can help solve consumer problems. The results of this study generally indicate that Mandiri bank has an advantage in terms of lower installment costs compared to BTN and BSI.</p> 2024-02-01T18:22:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Bela Desy Natalia, Candra Ditasona, Ruth Ririn Vania, Kornelius Anugrah Zebua NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF RICE GROWTH PHASES IN KARAWANG USING THE GAUSS-JORDAN ELIMINATION METHOD 2024-02-03T09:00:06+00:00 Ruth Ririn Vania Siregar Santri Chintia Purba Bela Desy Natalia Kornelius Anugrah Zebua <p>Indonesia's growth cannot be separated from Indonesia's economic growth. The agricultural sector has a massive and significant&nbsp; impact on Indonesia's economic growth. One of the agricultural products that’s important is rice. Rice is a seasonal crop that is very necessary for human survival. Karawang, one of the districts in West Java Province, which is known as Lumbung Padi City, is the location of the main topic in making this journal. In fact, based on BPS data, the area harvested for paddy fields in Karawang from 2010-2015 was found not to have increased regularly from year to year. This is interesting to discuss because the rice harvest area is expected to increase regularly to support Indonesia's economic growth. Of course, this is because the rice harvest area will affect the amount of rice produced in the rice fields. By ignoring other internal and external factors of rice growth, this journal will only focus on rice harvest area based on rice growth phases (vegetative 1, vegetative 2, and generative) and accumulated harvest area using the Gauss Jordan elimination method. Calculations are carried out to determine the possibility of farmers to predict the maximum amount of rice production and avoid losses in purchasing materials to support rice growth</p> 2024-02-02T01:37:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ruth Ririn Vania Siregar, Santri Chintia Purba, Bela Desy Natalia, Kornelius Anugrah Zebua DEVELOPING AN INSTRUMENT FOR RELATIONAL UNDERSTANDING ABILITY TEST AND INTERVIEW GUIDELINES 2024-02-03T09:00:06+00:00 Sai'da Tamalla Ali Akbar Rezi Ariawan Hayatun Nufus Erdawati Nurdin <p>The development of this research instrument aims to produce an instrument for assessing the ability of relational understanding in the matter of two-variable linear equations (PLDV). The form of the research being carried out is research and development (Research and Development) in order to produce products measuring students' relational understanding abilities. The research location is at SMPN 37 Pekanbaru in the even semester of the 2022/2023 academic year. The object of research is an instrument for assessing the ability of relational understanding in class VIII<sup>2</sup>. The instrument for collecting data uses an instrument validation sheet. Data analysis shows that the 10 item items developed have a very valid category with an average of 0.83 and a reliability level of 0.92 which is in the very good category. In terms of difficulty level, half of the test instrument questions are in the category of moderate difficulty level and in the differentiating power of the questions, there are 4 questions that are in the bad category. So, basically questions that are appropriate for use in research are numbers 1,3,5,8 and 9. For the validity of the interview instrument, they are in a fairly valid category with a score of 0.8667.</p> <p>Keywords: relational understanding, validity, judgment</p> 2024-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sai'da Tamalla Ali Akbar AN EXACT SYMPLECTIC STRUCTURE OF LOW DIMENSIONAL 2-STEP SOLVABLE LIE ALGEBRAS 2024-02-03T09:00:07+00:00 Edi Kurniadi Kankan Parmikanti Badrulfalah Badrulfalah <p>In this paper, we study a Lie algebra equipped by an exact symplectic structure. This condition implies that the Lie algebra has even dimension. The research aims to identify and to contruct 2-step solvable exact symplectic Lie algebras of low dimension with explicit formulas for their one-forms and symplectic forms. For case of four-dimensional, we found that only one class among three classes is 2-step solvable exact symplectic Lie algebra. Furthermore, we also give more examples for case six and eight dimensional of Lie algebras with exact symplectic forms which is included 2-step solvable exact sympletic Lie algebras. Moreover, it is well known that a 2-step solvable Lie algebra equipped by an exact symplectic form is nothing but it is called&nbsp; a 2-step solvable Frobenius Lie algebra.</p> 2024-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Edi Kurniadi, Kankan Parmikanti, Badrulfalah, Badrulfalah THE DEVELOPMENT OF ETHNOMATHEMATICS-BASED STUDENT WORKSHEETS (LKPD) IN MATHEMATICS FOR FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS 2024-02-03T16:53:56+00:00 Sudiyah Anawati Seruni Mia Intan Lestari <p>This study aims to determine the quality of Ethnomathematics-based math worksheet learning plans for fourth grade students of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah on the material circumference and area of flat shapes. The type of research used is research and development with the ADDIE model. The data source for this research was obtained from the validation results of three validators and the results of student questionnaires. The data collection technique uses a validation questionnaire. The results showed that this study used five steps, namely the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation stages. The results of the validity of the Ethnomathematics-based mathematics LKPD were 77.46 in the good category. While the results of the student questionnaire assessment were 84.15 in the good category. The quality of Ethnomatematics-based math worksheets for fourth graders of Madrasah Ibtidaiyah can be seen from two aspects, namely the results of expert validation and the results of student questionnaires, both of which obtained good.</p> 2024-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sudiyah Anawati AN ARCHITECTURAL SYMMETRY IN BATAK TOBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES: A GEOMETRIC EXPLORATION 2024-02-03T09:00:07+00:00 Aulia Simanjuntak Fuzi Anggriani Indah Christine Samuel Sianturi Maria Margaretha <p>This research explores the concept of geometry in the architectural symmetry of Toba Batak traditional houses. The main focus is on the symmetry patterns that exist in the layout, decoration and structural elements of this traditional house. This research aims to investigate the concept of geometric symmetry in Toba Batak traditional houses, with a focus on cultural values, philosophy and visual harmony reflected in architectural design. Data was obtained through literature studies which included scientific journals, books, articles and previous research. The results of this research not only provide a deeper understanding of Indonesia's rich culture, but also have the potential to contribute to the preservation of Toba Batak traditional houses and cultural heritage as a whole. By understanding the role of geometric symmetry in this traditional house, this article opens insight into how this element is an integral part of the architectural heritage of the Toba Batak tribe, explores deeper cultural values, and introduces new literature in the context of traditional Indonesian architecture.</p> 2024-02-02T07:08:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Aulia Simanjuntak THE INFLUENCE OF LEARNING INTEREST AND MOTIVATION ON MATHEMATICS LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT IN CLASS VII STUDENTS OF SMP NEGERI 80 JAKARTA 2024-02-03T09:00:07+00:00 Yohana Aplonia Pahanael Santri Chintia Purba Tan Hian Nio <p>This study aims to determine: (1) The relationship between interest and learning motivation on mathematics learning achievement among seventh-grade students at SMP Negeri 80 Jakarta; (2) The relationship between learning interest and mathematics learning achievement at SMP Negeri 80 Jakarta; (3) The relationship between learning motivation and mathematics learning achievement among seventh-grade students at SMP Negeri 80 Jakarta. The research method employed is a quantitative approach with a type of quantitative descriptive research. The research population includes all seventh-grade students at SMP Negeri 80 Jakarta. Meanwhile, the research sample consists of 75 students. The data collection technique in this research involves the use of instruments, namely: (1) learning interest questionnaire, (2) learning motivation questionnaire, and (3) even semester final exam scores. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis techniques and inferential statistical analysis techniques. The results of descriptive statistical analysis indicate that students' learning interest scores reached 77.3%, falling into the moderate category. Meanwhile, learning motivation reaches 73.3%, categorized as high, and learning achievement at 89.3% is in the category of beginning to develop.&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-02T08:16:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Yohana Aplonia Pahanael